FRISTER & ROSSMANN
* * *
On January 1, 1864 Gustav Rossmann opened in Markgrafenstraße, Berlin, a small workshop to manufacture and repair of sewing machines. Within that mid-year Gustav Rossmann joint
Robert Frister to form the new Frister & Rossmann, Actiengesellschaft. The company start manufacture Wheeler and Wilson
system sewing machines .
The company located in Markgrafenstrasse 27a advertises their first sewing machine based on the Wheeler & Wilson system.
Frister & Rossmann arrived at the Berlin audience so well that in 1865 the company moved into the Adalbertstraße 58 . Only three years later Frister & Rossmann then began to build the new factory in the Skalitzerstraße. Equipped with the latest American machines, the factory was in 1869 on the operation and set forth Weekly about 250 sewing machines to grab the system Wheeler and Wilson.
From an advertise Frister & Rossmann guarantees the machines for two years.
18 January 1871
The third and final act of German unification was the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, orchestrated by Bismarck to draw the western German states into alliance with the North German Confederation. With the French defeat, the German Empire was proclaimed in January 1871 in the Palace at Versailles, France. From this point forward, foreign policy of the German Empire was made in Berlin, with the German Kaiser (who was also the King of Prussia) accrediting ambassadors of foreign nations.
The effect on the economy through a new political constitution and administration is hardly ever more evident with the emergence of the Empire. As an example of the dimension of the profits to be obtained at a conversion of the merchant called Hermann Geber , the sewing machine factory , formerly Frister & Rossmann , bought it for about 70.000 Thaler and a little later it brought to the stock exchange for 865.000 Thaler.
19 November 1871
The company was incorporated on
19 November 1871 under the company name Nähmaschinen fabrik vorm. Frister & Rossmann AG. Transformation into joint-stock company with 2.5 Millions Mark capitol. The first share certificates were issued on 1 December 1871.
In 1872 about, the first fiddle-base sewing machine (FB 1) based on the Singer New Family 12 also sold in London. Frister & Rossmann started exporting sewing machines to England in 1872 circa.The sewing machines may have been sold in succession by two London firms under an English name and trade mark.
From a German newspaper say : The Frister & Rossmann factory in Berlin (the largest sewing machine factory in Europe) I think stores, I can recommend them as the best. The machines are made to share in its clean and durable,all work safely and quickly without the noise and cost, with only 36 Sämtliche Apperaten Rix. In January this year sold 1005 units, in February1521. Warranty and instruction given gladly
From a German newspaper say: fabricated for family use and commercial purposes with the principal U.S. aid machine, stand in their performance and duration as unmatched. Of these machines for over 10,000 units have been proven to the complete satisfaction of the Imperial. General Post Office, several Royal. Ministries and governments, and most of the German Railways direction relative to their officials, after the various experts they are "excellent in every respect" after careful consideration for recognition. Every genuine Frister & Rossmann machine bears the full Company name on the badge and the F & R in the frame.
From a German newspaper say “ always earnestly recommended its stores sewing machines, as working silently and easily grab.machines from the factory Frister & Rossmann in Berlin, (the largest sewing machine factory in Europe , 90.000 of these machines are already in use )
10 February 1875
On the 10th of February, 1875, Mr Isidor Nasch writes to Frister & Rossmann at Berlin asking to be considered as their agent for England. On the following day Frister & Rossmann replied that they had not intention of sending a traveller to London, and must leave him to make the best use he could of his activity, adding, " We had certainly not hitherto given you our representation for England. Should you wish to sell our machines on commission during your stay in England, we await your visit with a view to further conversation on the subject."
4 May 1875
On the 4th May, 1875, Frister & Rossmann wrote to Mr. Nasch in these terms: " We authorise you herewith, during your stay in London, to take orders on our account for our machines, and promise you a commission of 2 1/2 per cent. on the sales communicated to us by you, and seventy five marks will be paid you for the journey to London, the agreement to be cancelled at any moment."
5 May 1875
On the 5th of May, 1875, Isidor Nasch answers the letter as follows : "Acknowledging receipt of yours on the 4th instant, I accept the condition which you make." From this moment I. Nasch was employed by the company.
18 April 1876
On the 18th April 1876, Isidor Nasch was discharged by the company.
Hermann Loog the new agent for the company.
It is possible Frister & Rossmann approached Mr. Hermann Loog because not entirely satisfied of Mr. Isidor Nasch, but for sure Mr. Loog induced Frister & Rossmann to confide to him the sole sale of their machines for England and the Colonies and he insisted on their trade mark being attached to every one of their machines. Mr. Hermann Loog, who was a considerable retailer and have been in Gresham Street of the City of London for thirteen year, moved his retail business as agent for the German company to 128 London Wall. Few year later at 127-128 London Wall and in 1885 the premises of Hermann Loog Ltd. occupying three newly-built warehouses at 126, 127 & 128 London Wall.
Hermann Loog functions were to keep F&R stock in London and sell from it to customers. He had the sole agency for England and Colonies. The terms were 5 per cent, commission and expenses.
According to a letter from Mr Hermann Loog as a reply to Mr Isidor Nasch, the Frister & Rossmann in 1876 approached him, to take up their agency, which had then been unsuccessfully held in succession by two London firms. Mr. Hermann Loog say : When, at the direct request of Frister & Rossmann, who, as explained, approached me through a personal and mutual friend of Mr. Frister and myself, I took up their agency, their name and trade mark were quite unknown to the English public, and the few machines which “ Isidor “ and others may have sold, were sold by him either under an English name and trade mark, or else they were supplied without any name or trade mark, for the purpose of affixing an English trade mark before they reached the public. Having concluded my contracts for the agency and equally at the request of my then friends in Berlin and on their account, I engaged the services of Mr. Isidor Nasch and I do not think it necessary, nor in his own interest desirable, that I should here go into the reasons which compelled me, after a very few weeks, to dismiss him and to forbid him my premises.
The Villa Rossmann at Kurfürstenstraße 58 in Berlin , was built in 1878-79 by Max Karchow and Robert Guthmann for the factory owner Gustav Rossmann in the Italian Renaissance style.
The sewing machine factory owner Gustav Rossmann commissioned a villa in the en-vogue neo-renaissance style, which would survive two World Wars unscathed.
In the 1920s, the Jewish private banker Georg Blumenfeld and his wife Lucia Margarete bought the house, which would later be used as a secret gambling club for the high society of the Weimar Republic: aristocrats, intellectuals, the rich, famous lawyers and numerous stars.
When the National Socialists took power in 1933, the club was publicly busted; Blumenfeld and his wife were disowned and finally driven into taking their own lives. Soon after their ousting, a Nazi agency moved into the premises and remained there until 1945.
Berlin Industrial Exposition
In 1879 a large exhibition was set in an exhibition park created near the Lehrte Station. The exhibition was not only a show of technological advancements but it was also created as an amusement park.
One of the main attractions of the event was the first electric locomotive from Siemens & Halske. Originally built for use in a coal mine, it pulled three small cars fitted with wooden benches, each car being capable of carrying six passengers for a ride along a 300-meter circular track. Electrical power was supplied to a third rail from a nearby generating station. During the four months of the exhibition, it carried 90,000 passengers. The original locomotive is now displayed at the Deutsches Museum in Munich and a replica is shown at the German Museum of Technology (Berlin).
Winning medals in Sydney, Australia
( source winning medals from the back of instruction book)
Hermann Loog who was acting as an agent for the Sewing Machine Company, later Frister & Rossmann, since 1876, in a letter sent to F&R dated June 1879, he announcing the transference of his private business to the company Hermann Loog Limited.
[This letter was read, and in it Mr. Loog mentioned that owing to the dispute with the Singer Company and impending dispute with his former capitalist, he thought it advisable to turn his business into a company, because in the event of non-success in these actions all his opponents would have to go against for costs or damages would be " Hermann Loog, his bones and skin."]
THE SINGER MANUFACTURING COMPANY v. LOOG.
For using the word "Singer" to describe the sewing machines made by F&R in Berlin, the SINGER COMPANY started a litigation with Hermann Loog .The cause was first heard in July, 1879.
14 December 1880
THE SINGER MANUFACTURING COMPANY v. LOOG
In a court of appeal, decision in favor of Hermann Loog vs Singer Manufacturing company.
13 APRIL 1881
F&R introduces this new special device for automatically disengaging the bobbin when it is reeled, and comprises a special arrangement of "Carter's valve " and guide frame for facilitating the introduction of the thread. In a short time a new version was made.
15 APRIL 1881
From a German newspaper say “ A large trial, which is one of the most thriving industries of Germany's far-reaching significance, has reached its end before the London Court of Appeal and with the victory of the German company. The Singer Manufacturing Company in London had noted with unease that it was made by German sewing machine manufacturer successful competition. They decided, therefore, against the representatives of the deadlines and Frister & Rossmann factory sewing machines, Mr. Hermann Loog in London to proceed wailing and under the pretext that this company which after the Syrians "Singer" and "Wheeler and Wilson" finished commodities, thereby a deception of the public whilst he, in that they all circulars, price lists, etc. The term "Frister and Roßmann'sche Singer machine" use. The first instance trial lasted 17 days. 45 witnesses, traders, buyers,etc., were heard. The present printed stenographic report provides evidence that a witness 26 hours . Was heard and that the cross-examination questions were asked 11.304. When the sentence was pronounced, it was against Mr Frister and Rossmann, respectively. their agents. The legal costs amounted to 6000 pounds sterling or 120 000 M. - The losing company could not calm down with this knowledge, however, they appealed, and it was rejected after only four days of negotiations, the prosecution and the Singer Manufacturing Compagny the now imposed on 200 000 M. in adult cost . During this last trial was still noted the interesting fact that in the meantime had gone to Australia made director of the factory Singer'schen unauthorized changes in the stenographic record of the negotiations. In the grounds said the first judge, Lord Justice James, that the circulars absolutely exclude the possibility of deception and that the name "Singer system" could not make the impressionas if it were a finished commodities in America Singer'sche machine.The German sewing machine factory in the hot battle is won thanks to this decision as English in the market have a profitable sales territory.
6 August 1881
FRISTER & ROSSMANN reach 250.000 machines in production
18 AUGUST / 17 OCTOBER 1881
Winning medals in Altona and Crystal Palace
Winning medals in Amsterdam, Netherlands
Frister & Rossmann REPORT
The report of the Nahmaschienen Fabrik (formerly Frister & Rossmann) Actien Gesellschaft, for 1883, records a steady increase in sales and gratifying extension of agencies in various parts of the world. Owing, however, to certain new buildings and plant not having yet been completed, the manufacture of machines has been somewhat restricted, and a temporary decline of the dividend from 6 per cent, in 1882, to 4 per cent, in 1883, has been the result.
Also F&R opened a number of retail branch establishments in London and in the country. All those branches were supplied with machines by Hermann Loog from F&R stock held by him.
Winning medals in Teplitz? and London
1884 3 April
HOW STRIKES ARE MANAGED IN GERMANY
The well-known Sewing Machine Manufactory of Frister & Rossmann was closed for a number of weeks in consequence of a strike, which deserves to be commented upon from more than one point of view. We have obtained from Mr. Herman Loog , of 127 and 128, London Wall, their sole agent for Great Britain and the Colonies, the following particulars, which we think will interest our readers, and especially the numerous customers of the firm.
It was generally believed that the people employed in this large factory were well paid and well treated ; and from the periodical excursions arranged by Directors, not only for the 1,400 hands actually employed, but also for their families, as well as from general appearances it was thought that the relations between employer and employed were exceptionally happy. It was therefore a matter of great surprise, when, on the third of April, it became known that a strike had broken out among the workpeople of this factory, which through its agency at 127 and 128, London Wall, is well known not only to the English trade, but also in many thousand English homes where the F. & R. machine has become a household word. On the third of April, a couple of hundred men, mostly Socialists, on being refused compliance with the ridiculous claims they had put forward, stormed the spacious workshop, and, armed with bludgeons, called upon the workpeople generally to take up the strike ; those who refused were literally driven out by force. For the next week or so, a few honest men who were anxious to continue their work were waylaid in the streets, and broken heads and bones soon reduced so considerably the number of those willing and anxious to continue their work, that at last the Directors closed the factory entirely, especially as they were unable to obtain from the German Government any protection for the safety of their honest workpeople. Brute force reigned supreme, under the very eyes of the police ; the streets in the neighbourhood of the factory were the scenes of daily and bloody battles. The rebels, thus positively winked at by the police, managed moreover to spread about the false report that the average wages amounted to less than twelve shillings per week, and were intended to be still further reduced by twenty per cent. The publication of these falsehoods and the connivance of the police soon brought together a committee for the collection of funds, to assist those on strike. In vain did the directors apply for the police protection. The German parliament was about to be asked to renew the socialistic laws ; so, in high quarters it was evidently deemed desirable to nurse these dreadful disturbances for the purpose of being able to point them out, as the best proof for the necessity of these laws.
For when that object had been obtained it was shown to be the easiest possible thing for the Berlin police to put down instantly the disgraceful uproars of the past weeks. In the meantime the Directors of Frister & Rossmann had invited the strike committee to inspect their wages accounts, when it was ascertained that the average wages for the last three years amounted to twenty-four shillings per week (of under sixty hours) per head ; and let it be well understood, that this average includes several hundreds of labourers, boys and girls, at moderate wages, whilst it does not include the foremen. It was also conclusively shown that the intended reduction of wages was a mere myth.
The strike committee, therefore, could not but admit that the strike itself was frivolous in the extreme, and they withdrew their assistance. Thus ended a most disastrous misunderstanding between employer and employed; a misunderstanding which, but for the unprincipled conduct of the German police authorities, would never have existed at all. By sending the ringleaders of this most mischievous affair to prison for three months, the German police cannot repair the wrong they have done to the families of some hundreds who would have worked, but for the reign pro tern of brute force. The factory is now again in full work, doing their best to dispose, as quickly as possible, of an accumulation of orders.
The premises of Hermann Loog (Limited) occupying three newly-built warehouses at 126, 127 & 128 London Wall, promoting a variety of machines including sewing machines, perambulators, harmoniums and washing machine, household appliances and infant carriers . Also manual polyphone and cabinetto roller organ.
Frister & Rossmann continued to send machines to Hermann Loog until March, 1885, when two agreements were entered into. One was between Frister & Rossmann and Herbert Loog, Limited, and the other between Frister & Rossmann and Hermann Loog individually. Under the agreement entered into, Mr. Loog was bound to render periodical statements. He did so weekly, but not always regularly.
1st MARCH 1885
Frister & Rossmann, not being satisfied with the nature of the retail businesses as carried on by Hermann Loog, an arrangement was entered into by which the Limited Company took upon itself the whole of the liabilities of management and assets of the various retail businesses, and by an agreement, dated 1st March, 1885, between H. Loog & Co., Limited, and Frister & Rossmann, all these businesses, stock, assets, and liabilities were transferred to H. Loog & Co., payment being given for the stock and interest which Frister & Rossmann had in these businesses by debenture in H. Loog & Co., Limited, to the amount of about £23,000, and the arrangement was that Loog & Co. were to be supplied with 500 machines and other goods from month to month. All machines to be sold or let out on hire ; when sold, were then charged against H. Loog & Co., Limited, in the books, and from time to time bills were drawn by Frister & Rossmann upon H. Loog & Co., Limited, to be renewed at six days' date, and in addition fresh debentures were to be given by H. Loog & Co. to cover these bills. As a matter of fact some £6,000 or £7,000 of the original debentures have been paid off since 1885, but a very large additional debt has been incurred for which either debentures or acceptances have been given by H. Loog & Co., Limited. The amount of the original indebtedness now stands increased to some £33,000 or £34,000. On 1st March, 1885, and the same date as the agreement between Frister & Rossmann and H. Loog & Co., Limited, an agreement was entered into between Frister & Rossmann and H. Loog himself. By this agreement it was provided :
APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS.
4,713 H. J. Haddon, a communication from Frister & Rossmann, of Germany, for improvements in sewing machines.
Winning medals in Edinburgh , Scotland
Frister & Rossmann already employs 1.000 workers
Americans can judge of the extent to which sewing machine manufacture is pushed in Europe by the recent celebrations in the factories upon the completion of a certain number of machines. Frister & Rossmann recently had a jolly time over their 500,000th machine, and now the sewing machine factory of Rezler and Komarek, at Vienna, has celebrated the making of the 10,000th machine. These occasions may seem to warrant rapturous outbursts of enthusiasm to our European friends, but with us, millions of sewing machines have been made and sold without our feeling the need of any particular demonstration. The Yankee temperament does not grow enthusiastic over small matters.
Sewing Machine News
Hermann Loog ceased to be manager for the company at the end of 1886. He was arrested together with his son, a boy of 18, and brought up at the Guildhall. The father was on a charge of fraudulently applying 8,000 to his own us and of illegal pledging goods belonging to Frister & Rossmann, and the son of being an accessory in the culpable omission of the father to make certain entries in the books belonging to Frister & Rossmann.
Mr. SAMUEL LOEWE on January 3rd was appointed as the new agent for the Frister & Rossmann Sewing Machine Company.
New evidence proves that Frister & Rossmann , with Loewe as the new agent, remained in 127 London Wall ( at 128 London Wall was still H. Loog with the new business ) , for few months before moving to 49 Fore Street . If the side manual came originaly with the sewing machine , the serial number 539.711 was made before July 1887.
28th March 1887
HERMAN LOOG was again indicted, with ROBERT LOOG for misdemeanour.
No evidence was offered by the prosecution.
HERMAN LOOG indicted for that he being entrusted with 400 sewing machines as factor and agent, unlawfully deposited them with Myer Harris, with intent to defraud.MESSRS. JELF, Q.C., and BODKIN Prosecuted; MESSRS. WADDY, Q.C.,and BESLEY Defended.During the progress of the case the Jury expressed an opinion that it was not sufficient, and returned a verdict of
MAY 1887 Frister & Rossmann general assembly
On the afternoon of the 17 th May 1887, an ordinary general assembly of the shareholders of the Frister & Rossmann Company was held .The President of the Council of Supervision, Mr. Sigismund Born, informed the assembly that the Board of directors had tendered their demission to the council, and the members of the said council equally intended to tender their resignations in the case of the majority of the shareholders supposing this action to be serving the interests of the business.
On the July 1887 Messrs. Frister & Rossmann have moved to
49 FORE STREET with SAMUEL LOEWE as sole agent for England.
After 11 years , the badge 128 LONDON WALL attached to the Frister&Rossmann sewing machines sold by Hermann Loog,
will change in 49 FORE STREET.
49 FORE STREET
with the new logo
After a year, the new agent
will add his name alongside
London's address. In the badge from now on you will read
49 FORE STREET
Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee was celebrated. She had completed 50 years as the British ruler.
1887 Winning medals in Adelaide , Australia
Winning medals in Melbourne , Australia .
Founding of a Department of Electrical Engineering , production of Telephones and Alarm Systems.
F&R's Last Year's Trading
From a circular which Mr. Hermann Loog has just issued to the trade,the Sewing Machine Manufacturing Company (late Frister & Rossmann) do not at all appear to be doing a satisfactory business.Their published balance-sheets for 1886-1888 show a deficiency of £ 174,357, not marks, but Pounds Sterling or 3 ½ million marks.
This is their balance-sheet on December 31st, 1888,issued conveniently only on May 29th,1889
Winning medals in Berlin
Start of production of the first Frister & Rossmann Typewriter, an exact copy of the American "Caligraph 3".
The Berlin Trade Exhibition
The construction work started in 1894 with the intention to create a show room for the German industry - Germany was at the height of technological advancements and Berlin was at the center of science, industry and services. When the area was completed it occupied over 900,000 square meters - larger than any other fair in the world before. The "New Lake" ("Neuer See") in the middle was created as an artificial water basin occupying 10,000 square meters (it was roughly situated where the central area of the Soviet War Memorial (Treptower Park) is now). It required its own (electrical!) tramway route to get around on the large fair ground. The 3,780 exhibition companies had areas in 23 different topic groups. The largest building with 13 groups was the "Haupt-Industrie-Gebäude" (Main Industry Building) at one end of the New Lake while others were run in pavilions along the lake sides. The electrification of the area required a dedicated power plant on the fair ground - the electric illumination of the complete area was a sensation of its own at the time.
The exhibition was marketed worldwide - although it was rainy on 120 of the 168 exhibition days there were seven million visitors coming to the fair ground.
WILLIAM PIERSSENE the sole agent for Frister & Rossmann in London at 49 FORE STREET, LONDON, E.C.. W. Pierssene entered the office of the Sewing Machine Manufacturing Company (Frister & Rossmann), in 1881, as Managing clerk. At that time Mr. Hermann Loog was the general manager.
This machine , s/n 776.003, it's badged W.Pierssene, 49 FORE STREET , but for a short period of time , you can find machines badged S.Loewe , 49 FORE STREET as well .
The first Frister & Rossmann VIBRATING SHUTTLE machine ( VS 1 )
Frister&Rossmann produced over one million of sewing machine
The company's revenues, which have been slightly down in the first few months of the current year, have not only recovered, but are now even exceeding that of the previous year. In the main, this is attributable to the good business in the local machine, the typewriters department is also developing well, although the sale of bicycles is undesirable.
The sewing machine manufacturing business of Gebruder Nothniann, Berlin, was registered as a limited company. Most of the shares have been taken up by the Frister and Rossmann Co.
Frister & Rossmann report that their trade with England has declined. They pay 10 per cent, for last year.
Frister & Rossmann produced one million and 1/4 of sewing machine
Presto and Senta Typewriters
4 August 1914 , United Kingdom declared war on the German Empire
On August 20, 1914 the Allied Powers began an embargo on important items that were normally shipped to and from Germany.At first, the U.S. pursued a policy which, although formally neutral, penalized Germany and aided its British and French foes. Britain imposed a trade embargo on Germany which, with very little U.S. protest at its infringements of neutral rights, ended up choking off American exports of food, cotton, and other resources to Germany. Meanwhile, the U.S. permitted all belligerents – which, in practice, meant Britain and France – to purchase munitions from the U.S. and, later, to borrow significant sums of money from New York banks. When Germany, in response to the British embargo, began to use submarines to attack British merchant vessels on which Americans might be sailing, the U.S. vigorously objected that submarine warfare of this sort was a flagrant “violation of many sacred principles of justice and humanity.” Protests (including by the secretary of state) that these and other measures were one-sided were met with with accusations of disloyalty and anti-Americanism. Over the next year, the U.S. tightened the screws, issuing an ultimatum to Germany in 1916 to restrict submarine warfare or face the severance of diplomatic relations. A year later, when Wilson was safely reelected and antiwar voices had been further stilled or intimidated, the trap snapped shut: the Germans, now foreseeing that the U.S. would enter the war, decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare. Wilson, outraged at what he considered the breaking of a promise, broke diplomatic relations, armed U.S. merchant ships, and, after several of the latter were then sunk, called on Congress to declare war. What followed was a comprehensive mobilization of American resources, with an eye toward large-scale combat operations against Germany.
Frister & Rossmann produced over one million and 1/2 of sewing machines.
After the sinking of seven U.S. merchant ships by submarines and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.
After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives and United States forces began entering the trenches. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918 , later known as Armistice Day. The war had ended in victory for the Allies.
After World War I, Germany was forced to pay all of the war reparations after the Treaty of Versailles(France), signed on 28 June 1919 , came into force on 10 January 1920.
Reparations were the payments and transfers of property and equipment that Germany was forced to make following its defeat. Article 231 of the Treaty (the 'war guilt' clause) declared Germany and its allies responsible for all 'loss and damage' suffered by the Allies during the war and provided the basis for reparations.
Britain had suffered little land devastation during the war and Prime Minister David Lloyd George supported reparations to a lesser extent than the French. Britain began to look on a restored Germany as an important trading partner and worried about the effect of reparations on the British economy
Possibily after the Treaty of Versailles, the Frister&Rossmann could export again.The sewing machine were imported in England by the new sole agent O.QUITMANN with offices in 18 CITY ROAD, in London
1920 April, stock certificate
In January 1921, the total sum due was decided by an Inter-Allied Reparations Commission and was set at 269 billion gold marks (the equivalent of around 100,000 tonnes of pure gold). This 100,000 tonnes of gold is equivalent to more than 50% of all the gold ever mined in history (est. 165000 tonnes) which was clearly not within the means of the Germans to pay.
The war and the treaty were followed by the Hyper-inflation of the early 1920s that wreaked havoc on Germany's social structure and political stability. During that inflation, the value of the nation's currency, the Papiermark, collapsed from 8.9 per US$1 in 1918 to 4.2 trillion per US$1 by November 1923. Prosperity reigned 1923–29, supported by large bank loans from New York.
Frister & Rossmann was taken over by Gritzner.
1926 April, stock certificate
Dissolution of the Frister & Rossmann
The G.-V. dated 3.6.1929 decided to release according to § 240 HGB, the dissolution of the company.
After WWII, the brand name was sold in 1945 circa to O.QUITMANN in the UK